Enterprise Modeling of Print on Demand

1: Introduction:

The Report presents the enterprise modeling concepts and the implementation of these concepts in terms of Print on Demand printing business. 

The Repot presents the Business Analysis aspects of the Print on demand, and the detailed discussion on the business processes at the business. The report presents the Enterprise modeling framework and architectures and the ones used to model the business. The Modeling languages are presented that are used to model the enterprises and the IDEF0 is made for the print on demand publishing. The report concludes with the Discussion on the finding of the enterprise modeling of the business at hand.

2: Identification of the changed business

One of the greatest names in the field of publications is Hastings House publisher. It was in 1936 that Hastings House was founded by Walter Frese based in New York. It has an experience of almost 70 years in the field of publications. Its history tells that it has grown from one book, one author operation into a medium-size publisher but now it has a name in the market. They have their own history, HHP have worked in many fields like Architecture and Interior Design books, Communication Arts Books, Cookery and Wines, History and Americana, Visual Communications Books, Religious History and many other fields. Nowadays publishing business is flourishing because it has become a need of every business to advertise itself so HHP has a great business in market because of its name. HHP gives a beautiful message to its customers that “A publisher of modest size can produce books of excellent design for a wide audience”.

  • Introducing Print on Demand (POD)

The basic reason HHP is accelerating in market is because it has introduce a new technology known as Print-on-Demand (POD) technology. It is printing books which are in demand. Due to so many years in market of book publishing HHP has rights to thousands of title many of them are classics in books and are very hard to find nowadays. This is a good way of capturing the whole book market because you get your required target according to your policies.

2.2: Bringing Back Several Hundred Hastings House Books

This is making HHP winning its customers, bookstores, distributors. And it is helping HHP to republish titles with nostalgic appeal. Has it has rights of thousands of title so it is publishing those books again which are in demand so that it again captures the market. This includes scanning several hundred older titles with no digital files.

2.3: Testing Demand for New Titles

In order to increase market share we have to take new markets, also we have to meet the latest requirements. So for this reason HHP is also introducing new names in market that customer of new authors can also be capture. For this HHP has to know which new author is in demand and that’s why it is flipping the books in book surges system. Where HHP come to know the demand of customer and so publish those books.

2.4: Forwarding Orders Directly to Book Surge for International Fulfillment

As HHP has its name in market bookstores and distributors is paying monthly to HHP for their book publishing. This is because they do not want to waste their time in knowing the process of publication they only want to deliver books to customer. HHP is master in this process it publish book sell to distributor and bookstores and gets it money. By this HHP does not have to sell the book to customer itself. Only it has to know what is in demand. It frees HHP of frustration of selling to end user.

2.5: Drop Shipment of Domestic and International Orders

HHP Book Surge is so well positioned that it covers national and also international market of books. Globally it is distributing books to US, Europe, Asia, and Australia. It is helping customer to get its required book from its nearest bookstore without and difficulty.

3: The business concept

An adventure in publishing is the vision statement of HHP. The business concept of HHP is to do publishing to that extend that it covers whole the world market. And become the leading publisher of publishing market. For this purpose POD technique is been used. HHP is trying to publish book in low cost that customer can get its favorite books in cheap price.

3.1: The Mission and Vision

A beautiful statement for its customer “A publisher of modest size can produce books of excellent design for a wide audience”. it shows the company’s vision.

Product and Services

Nowadays HHP is providing many books in market as a product. There are old books republished and also new publications. Actually HHP is covering whole the market in all aspects. Some of old published books names which are in demand and are published by HHP are The Rhineland, Jack lalane / revitalize your life, Where the great German Wines Grow, Great American mansions, Apartment in Paris, Fasting The Ultimate Diet, and many more. The latest product are how to make insurance companies pay your claims, how the moon affects you, and hundred more.

HHP is competent of doing this in no time it is a brand name now customer buy product with their name on it. It has an experience of seventy years of publishing.

Value Proposition

As HHP is the leading publisher so it is going in benefit it is earning a lot of revenue for its stakeholder and also giving benefits to them. The technique of POD has increase the production of the title on which they have the right. So they are getting benefits.

Customer and Market

The customer and the market of HHP will now get there required product in time as getting from nearby distributor and will cost them low. Now market will be filled with the products of HHP because it is supplying the product which is in demand.

Money Making

HHP is making money more now because it is publishing those titles of which they have all the rights so no more paying for the rights and only publishing them and earning from them. And by use book surge system now their product is prepaid to the bookstore. They are free from the frustration of selling them in market.

Business Entity

The business entity of HHP is demand of market and also trying to introduce new titles under their banner name. Then they give their product to distributors and bookstores. But it should be changed because nowadays if they them self sell their product to end user they will get more profit and will get more interaction with their customer and come to know what their customer really want and will help them in next publication.

Vision Implementation

For fulfilling it vision HHP should get interaction with their customer so that they get the right demand and this will help them excel in all regards.

3.2: Brief strategic analysis / feasibility study

HHP’s strategy is to cover the world of publication in respects of books it does publication by different strategies. Latest it is doing its publication by Print on Demand strategy. It is getting the demand of customer and printing its old titles of which HHP has rights of printing. Then it is supplying its product to distributors so that customer can easily get it required product from nearby store. Print on demand is becoming its strength because they know their product will sell out in no time because it is the need of the time.


The basic technology currently used by HHP is POD technique by which they are printing those titles of which there is demand and they have rights. They are also providing with different services like Digital Design and Printing Services in which they help in web site design and programming, and book design and layout. But with time technology are changing so HHP will have to change them self. Some customer may need the same product in different format for that they have to adapt the strategy of changing format. 

Financial Viability

HHP’s technique is good for controlling financial problems because they publish according to requirement given to them by stores or distributors, but if they them self get interaction with the customer they will get a good result by feedback and will get a good idea of what to do for making them self financially more stable. They are stable that’s why they are still in business after seventy years.


Product of HHP is of best quality and to standards, and is of customers desires. In seventy years they have won their customers trust in all aspects. They own rights of thousands of titles. But if customer changes its point of view of getting product online and no need to use books then HHP have to change its strategy, because you have to change according to business requirement.


A.K Peters Ltd, Harper Collins publishers, random house publishers are some of the competitor of HHP. It has a competition but not to great extent. Because its strategy of publication of those titles which are in demand and are not in market and it has the rights to publish makes the company led and also its experience helps. So nowadays there is no competitor in market.

Risk Factors

There are risk factors involve in publication market like you are printing a book but suddenly demand change and customer wants another book, then you have to spot that work and change to public demand. And if there is a single mistake in your publication your entire product is destroyed. The major risk is that if people stop using and reading book then what, then HHP has to change to IT and gives it books and products online. 

Resource and capability

Resources may be of human resource and machines, but both are must and should be kept in hand. Also there should be IT resources presents like website and links which HHP has and is doing well in this field. HHP logistics system is well inform but have to improve in a way to get customer feedback by them self, HHP is supplying its product to stores and distributors but not interacting directly with the customer.

3.3: Policy and Principles

The policy of HHP of print on demand is better policy to capture the market with using less resource.

Customer and Stakeholder Relationship

HHP has good relationship with its customer that’s why it is functional for seventy years and is boasting more. But there should be some improvements in this process, so that there should be more interaction between them.HHP had adapted the technique of POD because of the relationship. HHP works on the demand of the customer and is fulfilling their requirement for almost seventy years.

Technology Policy and principle

As time is changing HHP has to change, new technologies are been introduced so HHP should work on getting involved with new technologies and get use to changes. Specially change in IT field, for this HHP has to remain up to date.

HR and Organization policy and principle

HHP human resource policy is doing great that’s why it has many old employees still working and we can see that this company is functional for more than seventy years that means it has good policy of human resource because with time you have to get new resource and even when you expand you need new employees.

Process and process management policy and principles

HHP is in process of producing thousands of books in no times so it is using good policy for their processes. But as IT world is changing so they may have to change to link themselves to new processes of production. And have to adapt new policy and principles.

Investment and efficiency policy and principles

HHP have an efficient policy for investments because it is investing in a way that they are confirm they will get positive results. Like using POD technique make them only invest in the thing or product which is in demand and in the end they get the required results in time and more efficiently.

Product quality policy and principles

As experience of seventy years they known what are the standards of product quality and what customer needs. But as we know customer needs changes randomly so HHP has to make policy to get good relations with customer so that they can get their needs and change the course of action.

Risk Management policy and principles

As risk are there in every business so HHP should have good grip on handling risks like sudden change of required product, decrease in demand and increase in production. And many other HHP should know how to cater with these risks. Like in future there will be decrease in use of books and increase in use of internet so HHP should make some policies to cater this big problem.

3.4: Action plan

Enterprise Business Architecture

Enterprise Entity Relations

Definition of the Entities:


Customers are the book readers that order books to the company, either through the Print on demand or currently in stock books.


The raw material for printing the books is supplied by different companies. These companies are the suppliers of our company.


The management of our company is the senior managers of Finance and Operations department. The manager of accounts, Human resource, and administration are also part of the company management.

Business Policies

Business Policies are made for business management and improvement, HHP managers make policies for business improvement. Business policies are must for improvement because there should be decisions which need to be made from time to time. These decisions are made by following the business policies.

Business Process

The business processes are the functional processes that are followed by the company employees. These employees follow business processes to complete the functions of the organization.

IT Infrastructure

HHP had to develop its own IT infrastructure which handles business requirements related to Information Technology. These can help in many ways like global interaction with the customers and suppliers.

Business Location

HHP is located in a place from where it can easily supply its product to distributors and stores for sale, which save their transport expense. Business locations are the locations where they supply the books and from where they buy their raw material and the production facility.


Retailers are those who sell books to the customers. HHP provide retailer their published books and they sell them to customers.  


Products are those things which are to be sale out, HHP product are different type of books which are sold out on book stores.


Publishing and printing books on the request of retailers and Print on Demand are services of HHP. Other services include publishing, website design, and books layout designs. 

4: Enterprise Modeling

The Enterprise modeling for the Print on demand business results in the discrete distribution of functions, processes and responsibilities in the enterprise. The Enterprise modeling helps us recognize the processes in the enterprise performing the functions for the fulfillment of the business transactions. The People that are performing the roles in the organization are also identifies as the roles that effect the organizational processes and the dependent functions in the organization.

The GERAM is the umbrella framework for the modeling of enterprise and consists of the components that need to be considered while modeling the Print on demand business enterprise. The enterprise modeling is done with the GERA modeling framework. It also presents the methods of enterprise modeling and also the languages used to describe the behavior and the structure of the enterprise.

4.1: GERA modeling framework

Generic Enterprise Reference Architecture defines the generic concepts that are recommended to be used while modeling the enterprise. The life cycle of the Enterprise engineering is defined below, this life cycle ensures that the process of the enterprise modeling is completed.

4.2: Life cycle of the EMs

The life cycle of the enterprise modeling is defined in nine phases, these nine life cycle phases describe the process of describing the enterprise concepts. These phases are described one by one.


Identification is the phase that allows us to identify the business and the activities in this business. This also identifies the activities of integration and engineering in the projects carried out in the business.


The concept phase is the definition phase for the visions, mission, value and the concepts and policies related to the business. This phase defines all these so that the business can have a direction, which will lead us to the enterprise definition in the next phases.


This phase is used to define the functional process in the business, their behavioral aspects, and the requirements for the information flow in the business, and all other requirements.


This phase is the definition of the entities and the relations in the components of the business. This also includes the alternative view of the business operations that can be replaced with the current operations.


This phase describes the system that is actually working as is. This system can be different from the design in the previous phase, which is the need of the time, but this phase describes the process including the discrepancies of the real system.


In this phase we implement the system in reality, the system designed is implemented and the resources required are distributed, the validation of the process is done.


This phase is the working of the build system, the system operations and the processes in it. This will ensure that the working of the enterprise continue working.


The Re-Engineering phase is used to change the processes and operations in the way that the processes and operations are improved. This also includes if any new technologies are introduced.

End of Life:

This phase is used to dispose the systems that were made in the enterprise to support the operations.

The phases of the GERA are done to ensure that the enterprise modeling is done according to the standards and the architecture is followed. The Enterprise models are used to maintain the enterprise functions in a standard methodology. The following are some common uses of the enterprise models.

4.3: Use of EMs

  • The Enterprise models are used to help us in the engineering of the processes in the enterprise.
  • This helps us to establish a consensus among the people regarding the common understanding of the concepts.
  • This helps us to calculate the design usefulness by just modeling it and simulating, making decision support for the enterprise.
  • Enterprise modeling helps us to execute the processes in a standard way and extend the processes for decision making.

4.4: Usage of Enterprise Modeling Languages

The enterprise modeling is done using languages that can support the modeling of processes and the roles in these processes and technology used in these processes. There are many languages that can be used depending on the nature of the enterprise processes and the level of abstraction that is needed in the modeling.

The GREA identifies many languages for each of the components of the model, that can be used, but the decision of the language use is dependent on the level of abstraction, and the process details. The following languages are some of many languages for each area in the modeling. the usage is dependent on the level of abstraction of the processes in the phase, the level of details needed to understand the design, the Capability of the language for designing a specific process, The familiarity of the language among the people in the business. The availability of the tools that support the language, and the easiness in the extension of the modeled process in the language.

For modeling of the Functional requirements IDEF0 can be used and UML use cases can be used. For the Print on demand we have used IDEF0 which is presented as later.

For modeling the behaviors the IDEF3 or UML sequence diagrams can be used.

For process design modeling Business Process Engineering Language (BPEL) and other programming languages can be used.

For The Data requirement Design the Entity relationship diagram and UML class diagram can be used.

For Physical Data Designing the SQL or any other programming language can be used. And SQL is also used in the implementation.

5:IDEF0 diagrams:

The Document presents the IDEF0 diagrams for the printing process for Print on demand. The Diagrams provide the details and abstract view of the process of printing. The first diagram is the context Level diagram and presents the High level structured design of the Printing process. The second diagram is the detailed view of the process of publishing a book, and provides details of the publishing process including editing, designing, printing and binding. The Process inputs and outputs are defined and labeled in the diagram. The diagram depicts the control structure of the processes and the details related to the controls and mechanisms of the processes.

5.1: Diagram 1: IDEF0 Context diagram:

Context Level IDEF0 diagram for the Print on demand book printing process.

The details associated with the context diagram are as follows.

The Developer of the Model: Arash Reghabi.

Purpose: To model the structural design of the Enterprise process of Book publishing using print on demand methodology.

View point: The System Designer.

Background Information: The print on demand methodology works on the principle that the customer order is required for the printing of the books. So the editing and the printing are done before and the printing and binding is done when the customer places an order. Rest of the publishing process is the same; there are different processes entities that are used while perform the tasks associated with the Process. These entities are explained below.

Printing is a business in which the books are printed by the publishers that have the copyrights to publish a book. The copyright is the agreement between the author and the publishing company.

The companies mostly buy the life time copyrights and then publish the books. Conventionally the books are printed once and the sent to the stores where they are sold. If a book is out dated and there is no current demand for the book the publishing of the book is stopped, and the text and the material associated with the book Is stored in the inventory. The book can still be published but when the customer orders the book. This decreases the risks of the publishing company and provides the facility to entertain the customer with its choice on the dame time being economical. To maintain the process the following entities interact with each other to provide the solution to the publishing company.

Customer Order:

The customer order is the entity that is created when the customer asks for the printing of a book. The customer orders the pricing through a customer order.

Customer Requirements:

Customer requirements include the number of copies or a specific addition, if more than one exists. This can also include the shipment details.

Publisher Requirements:

The publisher requirements are to use the materials that are recommended for the book publishing. This can include the standard operating procedures for the publishing of a book using print on demand, and other requirements.

Copyright requirements:

The copyright requirements are the requirements that are associated with the writer of the book.

Written Books Text:

The written books text is the text of the book that was stored in inventory of print on demand book.


Editor is the person that edits the books and maintains the text and of the book in accordance to the grammatical and textual mistakes and reads the book for errors.


The designer of the book is the person that is responsible for the designing the cover page and any their illustrations in the book.

Printing Manager:

The printing manager is the person that manages the printing through the printers or through the printing press. The printing manager prints the books using plain papers. Which are then sent to the binder? The printing is a major sub process as a whole but needs other sub processes to complete the work.


The binder is the person that is responsible for binding the books that are printed using print on demand method.


Material is all the material that is used in the process of publishing of the book. The materials are further classified but at this stage the usage in this process cannot be categorized so will have left it as material.

Finalized book:

The finalized book is the version of the book that is ready for the shipment to the client.  This is the end product and is not stored in any store, this decreases the overhead cost of handling and maintaining stock.

5.2: Diagram 1: IDEF0 A1 diagram:

The details associated with the A1 diagram are as follows.

The Developer of the Model: Arash Reghabi.

Purpose: The purpose of the diagram is to present the detailed structural process of the print on demand publishing of the books. The Diagram shows the process in terms of sub processes, their inputs outputs, control and mechanisms that used to fulfill the requirements of the process.

View point:The system designer.

Background Information:

The diagram we had made earlier shows the process of publishing the book using print on demand methodology. The method is used by small and medium publishing houses or by individual publishers. The methodology let us decrease the risk to the company, in this method we do not have to print the books and place them in the market for sale. We print the books only when the customer orders for the book. So the cost for printing the book is delayed until the order came.  The cost of the books that are obsolete is saved, and the service can be provided for printing the books tat are not available in printed form in the market. This makes the print on demand relatively better methods for small and medium publishing houses.

The large publishing houses mostly have bought the copyrights for printing some books, and with the passage of time the number of copyrighted titles in their possession increases, when these books were no longer in demand they are not published any more, and also they are not available in market, with the advancement to print on demand method we can still provide the customer with the book of their choice even when it is not available in the market. The print on demand is a different methodology and is introduced after the introduction of new computerized printing machines in the market. They can print on the go, whatever we need to print. Using these we can establish the service of print on demand for the books that we have copyrights for publishing. This way the print on demand provides the better solutions to the problems and losses that the publishing houses provide.

The following sub processes are identified in the diagram. The description of these processes is as follows.

Editing: Editing is the work of the editor of the company, the editor removes the mistakes from the text, maintains the standards for book publishing and the international and national law. The editor also identifies the copyright requirements for the ordered book.

As an input we have book text stored in the inventory of pre published books, the output of the process is the edited test that is ready for designing.


IN this process the book is designed, the front and back pages, the text and the Decoration of the book is done. The input of this process is the edited text and the output is the designed book.  Not this book the consumed by the printing. The printing manager takes the designed book from the designer and outputs the printing book to the next process.


The printing sub process includes the material for printing as an input, the  designed to be printed and the, customer sale order.


The binding facility is used to bind the printed material. The binder binds the printed book and the book is ready to be shipped or hand over tot eh customer.

Material Decomposition:

In the context diagram we have seen the material input, and in the A1 diagram we have defined the material for two processes, the material used for binding process and printing.

6: Conclusion:

The enterprise modeling of the Print on demand business is discussed in the report. The modeling process defines the enterprise and let them manage the operations and other aspects of business in a predefined architecture. The GERAM provides a cover for the enterprise modeling, and GERA defines the modeling components to be used in relation to each other to manage the enterprise business processes in a systematic way.

The diagrams presented in the report for the enterprise modeling of the Print on demand, show the working of the publishing hose. The publishing house uses print on demand for the printing of the books, so the process is designed according to the requirements of the print on demand. The diagrams show the inputs, outputs, controls and mechanisms for this process.

The diagrams show the detailed insight in the processes and the relevant entities in the enterprise, the diagrams proved to be the best way to express the processes and mention the requirements, inputs, outputs and the results for the sub processes. The Activities (sub processes) are associated with the numbers A1, A2, A3 and A4. The diagrams are numbered POD001 and POC002. This shows the relation among the diagrams.

The designing of the enterprise entities is guided by the Modeling framework and depends on the level of details that we need to model the process or concept. Thus the usage diagrams and languages are dependent on the level of abstraction and understanding needed for a process to be modeled successfully, this way the IEFD0 is chosen to model the processes in the Enterprise architecture of Print on demand. . The modeled processes are liable to run in the system though the system phases.